Vox AC80/100 (early AC100) serial number 173


2018 current (August-October)

13th November

A new page on Vox at the , has been begun. The deal was actually signed with Warwick Electronics Inc., the company that owned Thomas Organ.

Vox at the NAMM show, Chicago, 1965

A still from film of Tom Jennings with the Warwick Electronics people. The document, which is later presented to camera, is headed "Warwick Electronics Inc.".

6th November

Above, a short piece in the "Oxnard Press Courier", 2nd March, 1965. The Vox van! Marv Kaiser was also involved in promoting Vox at the "Battle of the Beat" at the Hollywood Palladium and the "Battle of the Bands" in San Mateo - .

The equipment in the van is presumably seen in part in numbers of promotional photographs - generally an AC100, two AC50 Foundation Bass amps, a Continental organ, and various guitars (esp. Phantoms).

Battles of Bands were a favoured means of promotion. Below, Joe Benaron (head of Thomas Organ and Vox in the US) and Marv Kaiser pictured in "Billboard" magazine, 19th August, 1967:

4th November

Melody Maker magazine, April 19th, 1969 - Vox 150W PA amplifier in the Orange shop on New Compton Street for £175. This is not too far off the price new in the JMI pricelist of November 1965, below.

JMI pricelist, November 1965. Just to note, still no 12" wall-mounted speaker. That was to come later. See the entry on this page for 14th September for some units from 1967/1968.

3rd November (2)

Below, a detail from The Who on stage in Copenhagen, 25th September 1965, with what are probably new (custom made) Vox 150W PA amplifiers - one is in use, the other a spare. Note their size in relation to the AC100s.

The control panel is inset in the top of the amps. The input jacks, which are white, are arranged in a row. There appear to be three controls - presumably volume, treble and bass, much as for the AC100.

The 150W PA amp was new in the Vox range at the time, its first outing being at the British Musical Instrument Industries Trade Fair, late August 1965. See the snippet from "Beat Instrumental" magazine lower down in this entry.

Whether it had 6 x EL34 or 4 x KT88 is not known. Judging by the size of the boxes, the transformers in the amps pictured below must have been monumental.

Photo courtesy of Scanpix. Detail from a high resolution file. Click on the image for a larger version.

The whole. Seven AC100s on stage along with a variety of cabs, the PA amps and column speakers.

A note on Vox PA amplifiers, 1964 - 1965

The early PA amplifiers were assembled for Vox by Triumph Electronics in Purley. Triumph also made the AC50 for Vox until Spring 1965.

It seems best at present to view the development in "stages" rather than "generations".

1st stage - early 1964 - two inputs

The first generation of Metal Clad Vox PA amplifiers, as described in the catalogue from early 1964 above, had two inputs. The relevant text has been given in black and white for clarity.

2nd stage - autumn 1964 - four and six inputs

August 1964: the new six-input PAs on show at the Russell Hotel. Judging by their depth, these units had transistor preamps. It is likely that the sloping-front Metal Clad amps - valve rectified - had four inputs by this time.

Metal Clads in the "Precision in Sound" newspaper catalogue from late 1964 - four inputs, three for mics, one for music.

3rd stage - early to mid 1965 - four and six inputs

The four-input amps are now solid state rectified (in line with the new generation of AC50s produced by Triumph).

A pristine Metal Clad PA50 assembled by Triumph Electronics under contract from Vox in early 1965 - note the solid state rectification - the four "top hat" Mullard BY100 diodes on the left-hand side of the tagboard.

4th stage - mid 1965 - four and six inputs

By mid 1965 it appears as though the four-input Metal Clads had been given flat fronts.

The Who on stage in England in the summer of 1965 with a flat-fronted 100W PA - presumably 100W as there is no designation on the front (MC100).

5th stage - autumn 1965

Four-input Metal Clads were still in production, appearing in the pricelist issued by Jennings in November '65. A new generation of amp was heralded at the August Trade Fair, however:

"Beat Instrumental" magazine, October 1965, review of the British Musical Instrument Industries Trade Fair at the Russell Hotel, August 1965 - see for more on the show.

Melody Maker magazine, 21st August, 1965. Four inputs and a spring reverb - presumably along the lines of the reverb incorporated in the AC30SRT..

Presumably The Who, pictured at the head of this entry, had a special incarnation of the new 150W amp. The pages on will be revised accordingly.

3rd November

The "Million Dollar" Thomas Organ Vox catalogue from late 1964 - the two sides of the fold out in full.

31st October

A Mullard brochure - an early one - for the EL34. For surviving sets of valves from AC100s fitted at factory, .

30th October

Backstage at the Futurist Theatre, 8th August, 1964. Probably not two AC80/100s. More likely to be the early AC50s in their covers. Note that the amp on its side has a solid bottom. AC80/100s had grilles underneath. This has now been signalled in the entry below, 29th October.

The baggage car sequence from "A Hard Day's Night" - shot in mid March 1964. Covers for the AC50 amp and its cab.

29th October (2)

The 4th Teen Age Fair at the Hollywood Palladium, 9th - 16th April, 1965.

The earliest pictures so far of AC100s - or rather AC80/100s - in the States not belonging to the Beatles (or any other English band).

The 4th Teen Age Fair was famous for a "Battle of the Bands" stretching over Easter week '65, won by Captain Beefheart. A sizeable amount of Vox equipment was provided for the event by Thomas Organ.

The Challengers, a surf group, served as the house band, providing music during the interludes between the competition rounds for the broadcast coverage of the days.

The Challengers, April 1965

An AC50 in the foreground, and an AC100 further up stage.

The cabs belonging to the two Vox amps at left.

The first Vox Teen Beat magazine, produced slightly in advance of the Teen Age Fair, had this to say:

"Pierced ear drums are expected to be the only casualties this week as 80 torrid teen combos battle for the Vox sound crown at the Teen Age Fair. Forty groups will vie at the Bay area show in Vox "Battle of the Bands" while the other forty will fight Vox "Battle of the Beat" at the Palladium in Los Angeles.

A copy of the Vox advert (perhaps the earliest in the States) that had been published in late 1964.

Captain Beefheart, April 1965

Captain Beefheart, winners of the LA competition, on stage at the Palladium, April '65. Note at front of stage the "Dave Clark Five" and "Jumping Beatles" standees,

San Francisco, April 1965

The San Franscisco Battle, April 1965. Foundation Bass to left, an AC100 (or possibly a thick-edged small-box AC50) on a large-box AC50 cab, and at right an AC30SRT.

A Vox advert for the Brothers Grim in Teen Beat magazine no. 1. The band, which performed and recorded very little, were said to be the first endorsers of Vox.

29th October

The Beatles backstage at the Futurist Theatre, 8th August, 1964 with Cherry Rowland, who was on the bill with Erkey Grant and Unit Four Plus Two. It was at this concert that the AC100 SDL speaker cabinets were used for the first time. Copper panelled AC80/100s had already been consigned to John and George in time for the Stockholm concerts in late July (see the entries lower down this page).

In shot below, an AC30 and probably the two early AC50s (not AC100s), one in its cover, the other standing on its side behind Paul's speaker cab.

28th October (3)

Above, the NME Poll Winners' Concert, 26th April, 1964 - two early AC80/100s, provided by Jennings for the event, along with much else, on the wheeled platforms on stage during the Rolling Stones' performance. It is likely that these amps served a variety of purposes - bass, Public Address, and so on. Some great Pathe footage below:

28th October (2)

The UK Vox press advert for the AC80/100, February 1964, bit by bit:

Dezo Hoffman photo, 25th March, 1963, Allerton Park - the "Jumping Beatles".

"Melody Maker" magazine, 15th February 1964. This may have given the idea for the advert below.

"Melody Maker" magazine, 29th February 1964.

"Beat Monthly" magazine no.12, April 1964, now incorporating the amp.

The AC80/100 in the catalogue of February/March 1964. The "Jumping Beatles" are on its cover. Did anyone ever order an AC80/100 in coloured tolex?

28th October

Some notes on early US users of Vox equipment with attested dates, or at least termini ante quem.

Below, pages from the Thomas Organ Vox catalogue (catalog) "King of the Beat" - . Much the same roster of UK equipment as in the "Million Dollar Sound" catalogue from late 1964 - see lower down this page (14th Oct.) - but the amplifiers now have new names.

The end pages have inset pictures of Vox users:

Vox, King of the Beat catalog, 1965
Vox, King of the Beat catalog, 1965

The catalogue probably from May / June 1965 as Donovan, Dusty Springfield, The Searchers and The Kinks are pictured performing at the NME Pollwinner's Concert at Wembley, 11th April, 1965. Precise date of printing and circulation yet to be determined though.

A couple of points. First, the only US bands pictured are "The Standells" and the "Sir Douglas Quintet". The former had used a Vox Continental organ (with its name and logo blanked out) in an episode of "The Munsters", aired 18th March, 1965. The latter also had a Continental early on.

The Standells on "The Munsters"

Sir Douglas Quintet, first single

Both bands did however have full sets of Vox gear. Further publicity photos - ie. subsequent to the ones embodied in the "King of the Beat" catalogue - were issued to dealers.

Second, the picture of the Beatles in the "King of the Beat" catalogue regularly found its way into later US Vox adverts - see the entry for 20th October, below, which gives it from a copy of "Downbeat" magazine, 23rd Sept., 1965. It also occurs in "Downbeat", 1st July, '65.

Also to say that it is the image used on Thomas Organ Vox warranty cards:

The front of the form.

In terms of adverts for Vox in general in the US, the one below still seems to be the earliest (which may ultimately be proved wrong, but earliest at present):

"Valley News (Van Nuys)", 11th December 1964. This, to date, is certainly the earliest instance of this particular advert (reprinted in Valley News on the 13th). The next earliest is in KRLA magazine on 23rd December '64, . The ad above promotes "Keys to Music", Van Nuys.

27th October

A Celestion brochure and pricelist from August 1962 (August on the back page of the pricelist, though April is given inside). The G12, the immediate precursor of the "Vox blue" (T530) and "silver" (T1088), was used in early AC15s and AC30s.

£8 16 shillings in 1962 is equivalent to around £170 today according to the Bank of England inflation calculator. But Vox presumably had a trade bulk deal.

25th October

A detail of a shot taken from side of stage at one of the Stockholm shows. One can just see that George's speaker cabinet, which contained 2 x 15" drivers, presumably in company with John's (see the entries below), is open backed - an upper board and a lower board as in large box AC50 cabs. The connector is on the upper back board. Thanks to Tom again for spotting this.

The blue arrow points to the gap between upper and lower back boards.

24th October (2)

The "Daily Express" Record Star Show programme, 21st March, 1965, containing the Vox advert posted on this page a little while ago. Around 80% of the programme is in fact ads. Pictures of the event are extremely hard to come by.

Note that the images of the Phantom and AC100 were used, very small, in the advert published in "Downbeat" magazine, below.

24th October

A news item from the "Daily Express", 9th February, 1965. Orders rolling in, more staff taken on - most likely also for the Vox Works at Erith - to meet the demand.

23rd October

My good friend Tom dropped me a line this afternoon saying that the speaker cabinets used by John and George at Stockholm in late July '64 doubtless contained 2 x 15" speakers. And yes, they do, or rather did. Below, the pic. of George's cab, inverted and given contrast.

Harrison's AC80/100, Stockholm, 1964

One can see how large the cut-outs in the baffle were. Scroll down for the un-inverted pic.

Tom noted further that the two cabs are in effect a sort of "expanded" AC30 extension cab rather than a "large-box AC50" ( though the idea for a new AC50 cab was clearly at large at this time). The AC30 "expanded" had two 15" speakers, with "heavy duty" on the labels:

Harrison's AC80/100, Stockholm, 1964
Harrison's AC80/100, Stockholm, 1964

A fine example with brown grille cloth.

Presumably what prompted the use of 2 x 15" drivers in the Stockholm speaker cabs was power handling. The Celestion T1074 (sprayed blue) and the T1109 (sprayed silver), which followed in May 1964, could handle 40-50 watts apiece - a reasonably good match for the new AC80/100 amplifiers. All three Beatles therefore had cabs with 15" speakers.

Whether the two guitar cabs were open or closed back is unknown - in views from rear of stage their backs are always obscured by the drum riser.

Below, an audio clip from the show on the 28th July:

22nd October

In all the major image repositories, pictures of the Beatles on stage at Stockholm are always said to be 28th July. Yet clearly the two different shows - one on Tuesday 28th, the other on Wednesday 29th - are encompassed. But which is which? The clue may lie in this picture of "The Shanes", taken on stage very probably - note the qualification - before the show on the 29th, the Marshall just visible at right (?).

The Shanes taking Ringo's kit hostage.

The dates in the captions to the pictures below have been changed accordingly:

21st October (2)

Some details from Stockholm, Johanneshov Isstadion, very probably the show on the 29th July, 1964:

John's amp and cab, the AC50 behind it, and behind that the Marshall JTM45 (belonging to another band) on the riser.

George's amp and cab.

21st October

Two pics of the Beatles, Stockholm, 28th and 29th July, 1964, John and George with their new AC80/100s and large box AC50 speaker cabs. On the drum riser, a Marshall JTM45 and 4x12 cab belonging to another band. It is interesting, but purely coincidental, that the Beatles took delivery of their 4x12 SDL cabs around the 10th August.

Probably the 29th July.

Probably the 28th July.

20th October

The adverts for Vox equipment circulated by Thomas Organ are interesting not least for the anachronistic pictures of the Beatles (and other bands) they embody. Below, one fairly common on the web these days. Its origin and date are rarely given however - "Downbeat" magazine, 23rd September, 1965 (and printed again in December).

A very tiny AC100, the drawing having first been used in the UK and States in late 1964.

"Downbeat", 23rd September, 1965. Other ads will be posted soon. The magazine, founded primarily to cover the jazz scene, is a fabulous mixture of things in the sixties. To shrieks of dismay, the Beatles even came top of one of its best vocalist polls in 1965.

Surprisingly - for the Beatles had just completed their summer '65 tour of the States - the inset picture in the "Downbeat" ad is almost two years out of date. Below, the concert programme for the Christmas Show at the Finsbury Park Astoria, 24th December, 1963:

A copy of the programme as a whole, part of the fantastic Bradford project, .

Once the advert containing this picture had been released by Thomas Organ, it was of course reprinted in various contexts:

"The War Whoop", Abilene, Texas, 17th March, 1966 . Old adverts never die, they simply fade away.

17th October

Royston and Vox at the Ideal Home Exhibition

OK, this is the "Ideal Home Exhibition" of all things, a wonderfully British institution held annually at the Olympia Exhibition Hall in west London, sponsored by the Daily Mail newspaper. 1966 (?) as an AC50 and AC100 are in view rather than the new solid state amps. As noted further down on this page, Royston's head office in 1967 was at 3 Hill Street (Mayfair). 24-25 New Bond Street, just discernible on the stand, is the old address.

One can see how other stands looked in the video below.

And Vox (or rather Royston) was there in 1967 too. See the text in the piece on Dave Roberts from "The Beacon", Journal of the Royston Group, July '67, below.

The 1967 Exhibition took place between the 7th March and 1st April. A short video of the show is here, requiring Adobe Flash to play.

Below, some great footage of the Ideal Home Exhibition, 1966:

14th October (2)

The group that convened the Public Address Shows attended by Jennings in 1964, 1965 and presumably subsequent years was the "Association of Public Address Engineers" (APAE). The Journal of the group may give info for 1966-1968. It is likely that Jennings picked up various ideas for its PA amplifiers at these meetings - design and features changed markedly over the years.

14th October

Some quick shots of the "Million Dollar Sound" catalogue, produced in the months following the deal made with Thomas Organ in August 1964. It probably dates from September/October.

Vox Catalogue (Catalog), late 1964
Vox Catalogue (Catalog), late 1964
Vox Catalogue (Catalog), late 1964

This copy originally belonged to Zeb Billings Music in Milwaukee. AC80/100 serial no. 430 was one of the amps that came through Billings's store in the 60s.

13th October (4)

A passing illustration of a small trade show that Jennings took part in in the 1960s: the annual exhibition of the Association of Public Address Engineers.

"Wireless World" magazine, March 1964. At this point, the Jennings PA amplifiers were new in its range.

The Kings Head Hotel, Harrow

The King's Head Hotel, Harrow, c. 1965

Vox Catalogue (Catalog), February 1964

The first generation of Vox PA amplifiers, as described in the catalogue from early 1964 above, had two inputs . The relevant text has been given in black and white for clarity. The page on has been updated.

"Wireless World", March 1965.

13th October (3)

It seemed best to gather the new pages on Trade Fairs together on a . Further venues to be incorporated.

13th October (2)

Tom Jennings and Dick Denney at the NAMM show, Conrad Hilton, Chicago, 10th - 14th July 1966, demonstrating the Guitar Organ in front of Thomas Organ solid state amplifiers. Other interviews are collected on the NAMM 1966 website.

A syndicated report of the $2 million order won at the show. "The Birmingham Post", 27th July 1966.

"Beat Instrumental" magazine, August 1966.

13th October

A page now begun on the , which took place at the Sokolniki Exhibition Centre, 8th - 24th July 1966. As ever, further material to be added, so do check back from time to time.

The rotunda of the Sokolniki Exhibition Centre, pictured in 1961.

The Fair unfortunately provided little return for Jennings - a paltry £1500, by no means the fault of Dave Roberts and Colin Barrett, the Jennings representatives, who proved hugely popular. The Vox stand at the National Association of Music Merchants in Chicago, on the other hand, which took place more or less simultaneously, netted the company $2 million, almost 80 times as much. But the principal customer was, of course, Thomas Organ.

12th October

The page on the has now been updated with ads placed by other companies for their stands at the show. Melody Maker even went so far as to produce a special issue in German for the event. In contrast to previous years, info on the 1966 show is relatively good.

Melody Maker magazine, 26th February 1966

11th October

A new page has been started on Vox at the . Further material to come. The adverts issued in advance of the Fair are also to be found a little way down this page.

10th October

The Vox stand (not a large one) at some large exhibition venue - the extent of the structure can be glimpsed upper left. Certainly not Frankfurt 1965 (the stand number is not a Frankfurt number), nor the Russell Hotel 1964 or 1965.

Note the prominence given to Royston Industries, and the company address: 24-25 New Bond Street, London, W1.

The Birmingham Post, 3rd September, 1966. Royston is still on New Bond Street. In 1967 the company office was 3 Hill Street.

Melody Maker magazine, advertising a sort of portmanteau exhibition. Whether Vox was at this show remains to be seen.

9th October (3)

A snippet from "Piano Trade Magazine", volume 64, 1967 - Jennings officially breaking its ties with the Thomas Organ Co. But the rot had set in much earlier. Thomas had established its own office in London around a year earlier (in Clerkenwell), and had brought a network of dealers into being by the autumn of '66. The dealers met on 24th August at the Dorchester Hotel, the penultimate day of the British Musical Instrument Industries Trade Fair.

Billboard magazine, 27th August, 1966.

9th October (2)

Just to gather below some of the reports of the orders that Jennings won during the course of 1964 and 1965 - quite staggering figures. The Vox Works at Erith and the old premises on Dartford Road will have been running at full pelt to keep up with demand. These of course are simply the orders reported by the newspapers:


From "Beat Instrumental" magazine no. 18, October 1964. The "Million Dollar" contract, signed at the British Musical Instruments (Association of Musical Instrument Industries) Trade Fair, which took place in late August (24th to 29th) while the Beatles were touring the US.

"The Birmingham Post", 17th November, 1964. A second order - 1.5 million dollars this time (then equivalent to £534,000). This second order is sometimes confused with the first.

The Observer, 22nd November, 1964. Prophetic words.

It seems likely that the "Million Dollar Sound" US Vox catalogue had been drawn up and issued by the end of November '64. A full copy of this catalogue will be posted soon.


Coventry Evening Telegraph, 4th February, 1965.

"Melody Maker" magazine, 13th March 1965, reporting on the Frankfurt Musikmesse, 21st-25th February, 1965.

A further massive order came in during the course of 1965. The extract below is from "The Economist" magazine, volume 216, July 10th, 1965. Click as ever for a larger image.

The upper figure of "$10 million", a good eye-catching number, is echoed in reports published in Billboard magazine.

What underlay the note in the Economist was the deal done at the NAMM (National Association of Music Merchants) show at the Conrad Hilton in Chicago, June 27th - July 1st, 1965. The Thomas Organ Co. ordered $2-4 million worth of Vox equipment. "Billboard" magazine records the higher figure.

A schedule of events and partial list of exhibitors is given in Billboard, 26th June, '65, pp. 45-46.

Billboard magazine, 31st July, 1965.

9th October

A screen-grab from the Pathe newsreel on the BMI Trade Fair, London, 1965.

A page on the British Musical Instrument Trade Fair, London, Russell Hotel, August 1965 . Material from "Melody Maker" magazine "Trade Fair Special", 21st August, 1965, will follow. The brief account of the Jennings stand has already been included, however.

8th October (2)

The page on the , has also been updated - further contemporary reports of the "Million Dollar Deal", and the even larger order that followed in November 1964 will be added shortly.

8th October

Two new pictures added to the page on the , and its date corrected from a contemporary source - 21st-25th February '65.

7th October (2)

Dick Denney at the Frankfurt Music Fair, February 1965, not February 1964 as is sometimes said. Note February, not March.

A page on the Frankfurt Fair, 1965, . Pages on 1966 and 1967 to follow.

7th October

Dick Denney at the British Musical Instrument Industries (AMII) Trade Fair, August 1964

Dick Denney at the British Musical Instrument Industries Trade Fair, the Russell Hotel, London, 24th-28th August 1964.

New sets of pages are in the making on the Vox displays at the two main European fairs for musical instruments in the 1960s - the Frankfurt Musikmesse, which took place annually either in February or March, and the BMI Fair, normally in the penultimate week of August. The page for the BMI Fair, August 1964, .

"Beat Instrumental", "Melody Maker", the "Record Mirror" and "Billboard" are generally speaking the most important sources for contemporary reports on the Fairs. Others will be included where relevant. "The Guardian" newspaper has interesting comment for 1964 and 1965, for instance.

3rd October (2)

Below a Vox AC100 cover from mid 1967. Note the outline round "VOX", introduced with the solid state line in Spring of that year.

Vox AC100 cover from 1967
Vox AC100 cover from 1967

3rd October

A Thomas Organ Parts Pricelist for dealers from April 1969. The Vox AC100 is still there. A new power transformer was $34.00 (retail), a cabinet for the amp $44.00, and a cabinet cover $5.00. One could buy parts of the speaker cab separately too. A replacement trolley would be a Super Beatle trolley, the cover also from a Super Beatle, $20.00. The list of electronic components is much reduced from the list issued in 1967, (foot of the page).

Thomas Organ Parts Price List from April 1969
Thomas Organ Parts Price List from April 1969

2nd October

On the left, the Celestion alnico G12 in a Celestion leaflet from August 1956. A version of this first incarnation of G12 speaker (BO24 and BO25) was used in early AC15s and AC30s - the CT3757, hammertone silver frame. The Celestion blue (T530) and Celestion silver (T1088) were later descendants.

Celestion speaker leaflet from 1956
  • Celestion speaker leaflet from 1956
  • Celestion speaker leaflet from 1956

30th September (2)

A Jennings Musical Industries Hire Purchase form from 1961 / 1962. The form will have been much the same for the following years.

Early pricelists often gave the schedule of terms. Below, JMI's list of Fender guitars from April 1962.

30th September

The front page of a Goodmans brochure for guitar speakers, undated, but probably 1965. The whole thing is on the Vox AC50 website - speakers index page.

Among other things the ideal volumes for speaker cabinets are given. A quick calculation shows that the Vox T60 / 2 x 15" speaker cab is pretty much in line with what Goodmans recommended. The thin-edge boxes for AC80/100 amplifiers were made to match the width of these cabs - ie. a chassis that fitted in a box 19 inches wide was part of the design brief. Later thick-edge boxes overhang the edges of the T60 / 2 x 15" cabs slightly.

28th September (2)

Pages from the 1964 Vox Catalogue are now going up in batches:

28th September

Below, some pics of the Vox catalogue for 1964/65. The printer's runners indicate it was put to press in February '64. The format is a series of bifolia held together in an outer wrapper. The catalogue in its entirety will be posted soon, along with a small trove of catalogues, pricelists and related JMI material from 1961 and 1962.

Above, what is probably the first official mention of the PA amps - the sloping-front "Metal Clads" - "For factory, theatre, club, pop groups, etc.".

Vox PA50, 1965

A second generation MC50 from early 1965. The first generation, as described in the 1964 catalogue, had two inputs.

21st September

The page on 18" bass speakers, used by Vox in Foundation Bass cabs, has been updated with new info. and material from catalogues and pricelists.

The Audiom 91 was new in Spring 1964.

20th September

Below, a note in the Guardian newspaper, 30th January, 1963, signalling the controlling stake taken by Royston Industries in Jennings. Strangely the date does not seem to have been made explicit in the existing literature on Vox.

Guardian newspaper, 30th January, 1963
Guardian newspaper, 30th January, 1963

Above, a list of Royston's holdings as they stood in July 1967 from the house journal: "The Beacon". A complete copy of the edition, which concentrates on JMI's winning of the Queen's Award for Industry, .

As is well known, however, Royston took more money out of JMI than it put back in. Profits from the massive orders won by JMI in the U.S.A. - on which, - were largely dispersed.

By autumn 1967, following a series of mis-judged ventures, Royston found itself in trouble. Where JMI was concerned, things came to a head in September when Tom Jennings was sacked. Many others, Dick Denney included, went soon after. The running of JMI fell to Cyril Windiate, Tom Jennings's secretary.

Below, a purchase order dated 6th February 1968 from JMI to Macari's Musical Exchange for 100 Tonebenders. Macari's had taken over the old Jennings shop, 100 Charing Cross Road, in February 1967.

Purchase Order, February 1968

The signatory for JMI is Cyril Windiate. Note that the Order clearly records that the company was in the hands of the receiver.

Material relating to the transition of the company from JMI to "Vox Sound Equipment Limited" in the second quarter of 1968 is being assembled on the Vox Supreme website.

15th September (2)

The page on - The T1022, T1079, T1108 and T1296 - has been updated.

15th September

The full Official Programme of the Richmond Jazz and Blues Festival, August 1965, .

14th September

A mini stack of Vox 12" PA speakers - a pair and a singleton. The pair is probably from 1968 and originally had Celestion T1088s - see half-way down . The single speaker is earlier - its baffle cut-out has a horizontal and vertical bar across it. The later speakers only have a vertical.

These are nicely made units. On their upper backboards, slotted holes so they could be hung on walls by nails. Further pictures to follow.

12th September

The second half of the page on the has now been revised - July to October.

A rare colour picture from the North American tour of August and September shows that the spare AC80/100, often seen by the side of the drum riser, had brown grille cloth:

Beatles, Toronto, 7th September, 1964

Click as ever for a larger image. Toronto, 7th September, 1964.

11th September (2)

The page on the Beatles' AC80/100s is in the process of being updated in reverse order - so far. The kicks off with December 1964.

It was during the Beatles for Sale sessions in early October that the three new amps (seen also on the tour discussed briefly below) arrived.

11th September

Some notes on the Beatles AC80/100s in October and November 1964

Pictures taken on the Beatles' tour of the UK in late 1964 - 9th October to 4th November - show that the group travelled with four thin-edged AC80/100s with black grille cloth.

1) A new amp, delivered to Paul in early October 1964, with a BASS logo.

2) One of the amps given to John and George in early August '64, its logo composed of single letters V O X.

3 & 4) Two new thin-edged amps with conventional logos (bars through the letters).

A fifth amp, the twin of no. 2, does not appear. Its box, however, was used a little later to rehouse Paul's first AC80/100 - see below, entry for 8th September (2).

A series of illustrative details:

Leicester, De Montfort Hall, 10th October 1964. Paul's amp at left (1), and the amp with a single letter logo (2).

Belfast, King's Hall, 2nd November 1964. The amp at left has no bass flag (3). The alignment of the diamonds on its grille cloth is similar to the amp with a BASS flag, but the two are not the same. George's amp is the same as above (2).

Belfast again. The amp used by John (4). Logo of the standard type.

In terms of serial numbers, we have only one definitively fixed point at the moment. The twin of (2), delivered to John and George in August 1964, was serial no. 180.

It seems likely that the three new amps provided for the tour, made up specially with black grille cloth (brown was the norm), had numbers in the low 200s, or possibly 190s (no known survivors at present).

Brighton, 25th October 1964. Picture from the Beatles Book Photo Library. Paul's amp is (1), with a BASS logo at front and central screw on the top edge of the back board.

Brighton again - the amp used by John.

The two earlier amps - (2) and (5) - had no screws on the top edges of their respective back boards. Below, Lennon's amp, Milwaukee, 4th September, 1964:

John Lennon's Vox AC100 SDL, Las Vegas, 20 August, 1964

John Lennon's Vox AC100 SDL, New Orleans, 16 September, 1964

New Orleans, 16 September, 1964. This is (2), above. Note the relationship of the letters to the diagonals of the diamonds. From a picture by Ted Rozumalski.

George Harrison's Vox AC100 SDL, New Orleans, 16 September, 1964

The box of this amp was used to re-house Paul's first AC80/100.

10th September

The page on the has been updated (long overdue anyway) with the new pictures and info posted below over the last few days. Further updates will be slipped in during the course of this week.

9th September (2)

To illustrate the point of amps being used fairly interchangeably by the Beatles, a couple of details. Note the ding on the serial number plate:

Lennon photographed from stage rear in front of the amp he used - serial no. 180 - on 24th June 1965 at Milan.

The plate of the amp used by Paul - serial no. 180 - for the Christmas Show rehearsals, December 1964.

Also worth pointing out that between the end of the Christmas Shows and the European tour in June '65, serial no. 180 in company with the other amp in a thick-edged box and serial no. 150B were given fixings (two screws) on the top edge of their respective backboards.

Milan, June '65. The companion amp in a thick-edged box, used by George. At right, serial no. 150B, used by Paul.

So the timeline insofar as it can be made out at present seems to be:

Early December 1964 (?): Amps back to JMI for refurbishment / reboxing.

Early months of 1965: Amps back to JMI again - screws added to top edges of back boards. Presumably other work too.

These seem to be pre-concert-run checks / repairs. For the NME Pollwinners concert, 11th April, 1965, the Beatles had large-box AC50s on top of their SDL speaker cabinets. It may be that the AC100s were away at JMI at this time.

NME Pollwinners concert, Empire Pool, Wembley, 11th April, 1965. Picture from Getty Images.

9th September

A detail of the serial number plate of the amp used by Paul at the rehearsal for the Christmas concerts, Finsbury Park Astoria, December 1964 - see the entry below, 6th August. Serial number 180:

Click as ever to enlarge. The serial number plate has 9 lines of text and long panels for the details.

Note that the amp's box is a new-style thick-edged one with no corner protectors - a format that had come into being by November 1964. Number 180 should by rights, however, be an amp in a thin-edged box. See .

The mains switch is a small ball-end Arrow. Other pictures show that the amp has a link voltage selector.

What seems to have happened is a sort of musical chairs. Paul's first amp was given the thin-edged box of one of the amps given to John and George in autumn 1964, and the boxless chassis that resulted from this exchange - serial no. 180 - was given a new thick-edged box, along with the chassis of the other amp given to John and George.

In other words, Paul's AC80/100 - serial no. 150B - ended up with an old-style black-fronted box, and John and George's were given new ones. From late 1964, however, the Beatles used their amps fairly interchangeably, so the notion of "owners" rather dissolves away.

The amp used by John at Milan, thick edges to the box, no corner protectors.

The amp used by George at Milan. As above, thick edges to the box, no corner protectors.

8th September (2)

Just to note that Paul's first amp - serial no. 150B - was originally issued in a box with brown grille cloth. In late 1964, in time for the Christmas show, the chassis, along with its back panel, was rehoused in the box of one of the amps originally issued to John and George in the autumn of 1964. These had black grille cloth. 150B was subsequently taken on the Italian and US tours of 1965.

Serial number 150B, at right, photographed from rear of stage at Milan, 24th June, 1965. This picture is sometimes, wrongly, said to be Genoa.

Photographed from front of stage, Milan, 1965. Compare the alignment of the diamonds on the grille cloth with the amp below. The left side is slightly in shadow.

George Harrison's Vox AC100 SDL, New Orleans, 16 September, 1964

From a picture by Ted Rozumalski. The black-fronted amp used by George, New Orleans, 16 Sept. 1964. Paul's old chassis was slipped into this box.

8th September

Some changes now to the page on . It is extremely doubtful that the amp said to be no. 117 is actually 117. There is something odd about its serial number plate (which is presented at a distance), among other things.

The lack of amps with attestable serial numbers under 150 certainly makes sense in relation to the evidence conveyed by the high-res photo posted yesterday - Paul's amp was the first AC80/100 issued, just as John and George had the first AC50s.

6th September

The serial number of Paul McCartney's first AC80/100 - serial no. 150B - seen in a pic taken at the Finsbury Park Astoria, December 1964:

A detail of Paul's amp on stage, Versailles, 14th January 1964. The AC80/100 had been issued to him in late December 1963.

Rehearsals for the Christmas Show, Finsbury Park Astoria, December 1964. Picture courtesy The Beatles Book Photo Archive.

A general detail from the picture above, Paul's first AC80/100 being used by George.

A detail, inverted and slightly enlarged, from the high resolution file - 150 B on the plate.

Paul's amp was the first AC80/100 made. No other amp has come to light with a fuseholder on the back panel, or with white jack plug sockets. Note that the serial number plate is of the early type, and that the designation "B" is also found on the plates of early single channel, two input AC50s that were paired with Foundation Bass cabs. See on the AC50 website.

Evidently the idea, from the start, was to sell some AC80/100s with bass cabs, others with non-bass cabs. John and George's AC100 SDLs did not come along until August '64 though.

The serial number 150B is interesting as the presumption has been that the sequence began at 100 or 101. Intriguingly another amp was also stamped 150 - the amp in Florida, used by Bill Wyman in 1964 and 1965. See the entries below, 31st July and 2nd August.

Quite what this means is difficult to say for sure - possibly a mistake, or perhaps the number 150 recorded/signified that these AC80/100s had been consigned to bands.

28th August

The chassis of 254 now pretty much sorted out. Everything powers up as it should. Still a few things to do, among which the replacement of the dreadful "orange drop" suppressor cap.

There are now a couple of pages on the amp - , and some details taken a couple of months ago in the States, .

27th August (3)

Some shots of 254's box:

The furniture glide (small black foot) rear right (corr.) is original. The other three are replacements.

27th August (2)

Some pics of the back panel of 254, before and after:

The panel as reconfigured in the US, probably in the 1990s. Next to the jack socket on the aluminium plate was a switch to switch between 8 and 16ohms.

The hole for the mains socket was enlarged too much and too irregularly to give anything away about what was in there originally. The Bulgin happened to fit and cover the odd screw holes.

The screw holes above and under the main holes for the speaker sockets show that the amp originally had two Cannon XLR-3-32s. The leftmost hole was widened at some point (see below).

27th August

On the left, the plate of serial number 185 (brown fronted, thin-edged box, green Woden transformers, cathode biased, etc.). On the right, the serial number plate of the amp featured in the Wyman advert (also brown fronted, thin-edged box, green Wodens, cathode biased). Both, along with with no. 221, were stamped by the same person. Westrex-made AC80/100s - from no. 100 to around no. 300 - normally have only three digit serial numbers. Burndept numbers (from the last batch of black panels on through to 1967) are machine stamped.

The amp pictured below was evidently given its plate a good number of months after it and its box had been made. From around no. 220 boxes are thick edged, and from around no. 230 control panels, along with cloth fronts, are black.

20th August

A slow journey from the States, but now here, the JMI AC80/100 testing / promo amp, seen in the advert for Bill Wyman and his new bass (signalled below, 24th June).

Detail from the Vox advert in "Beat Instrumental" magazine, December 1965 - (scroll to the foot of the page).

The amp was never provided with a logo, nor the holes for one. Compare the distinctive diamond pattern of the grille cloth.

The chassis - two fans added in the US. Further pics will be posted in due course.

The amp belonged to JMI until it was sold (presumably in late '65 or '66). It was not used on stage or otherwise by the Stones. But Bill W. certainly stood beside it. Thanks to Tom for picking the amp up in Brooklyn and arranging for the shipping.

19th August (2)

Below, details of John and George's black-fronted amps on stage, New Orleans, 16th September, 1964:

George Harrison's Vox AC100 SDL, New Orleans, 16 September, 1964
John Lennon's Vox AC100 SDL, New Orleans, 16 September, 1964

From a picture by Ted Rozumalski.

John Lennon's Vox AC100 SDL, Las Vegas, 20 August, 1964

The rear of Lennon's amp, Milwaukee, 4th September, 1964.

19th August

Vox dealer photo no. 1, published also in magazines and papers in the UK and States in 1964 and 1965. The "amp" is probably just a box (no chassis inside) - Bill gives the game away, holding it with two fingers. The single letters for the logo were added to the photograph later.

Click for a larger image. A detail showing the wonkiness of the logo - painted on to a large initial print, and then rephotographed.

The whole picture.

18th August

A great detail of the JMI loan AC100 SDL - the amp an AC80/100 in a thin-edged box - used by the Stones in Paris and Belgium, October 1964. Since no colour pic. has so far come to light, it's not possible to be entirely certain of the colour of the amp's grille cloth.

Black, however, seems likely to match the grille cloth of the cab - much as the grille cloth of the Beatles' amps matched the cloth of their speaker cabs.

Amp and cab may have been one of the ones, or perhaps the one, shown at the "British Musical Instrument Industries" Trade Fair at the Russell Hotel, 24th - 29th August 1964. The Beatles were away on tour in the States at this time:

Beat Monthly magazine, October 1964.

15th August

Material from the "Record Mirror", 29th August, 1964, on the Vox showing at the "British Musical Instrument Industries" Trade Fair at the Russell Hotel a few days earlier:

A note on the all-purpose PA amplifier was also published in "Beat Instrumental" magazine, . The amp must have been a gargantuan thing with spring reverb and (presumably) tape echo. No surviving examples have so far come to light - and probably none will, as it seems unlikely that the unit was ever put into full production. There is certainly no mention of it in catalogues from 1964 or early 1965.

This advert was also published in "Beat Instrumental" magazine, .

14th August

The Rolling Stones at Longleat, 2nd August 1964, with a thin-edged brown-fronted Vox AC80/100 and AC50. The AC80/100 is different from the one discussed in the entries a little way down this page. Note the pattern of diamonds on the grille cloth.

Rolling Stones at Longleat with a Vox AC80/100 and AC50, August 1964
Rolling Stones at Longleat with a Vox AC80/100 and AC50, August 1964
Rolling Stones at Longleat with a Vox AC80/100 and AC50, August 1964

12th August (3)

The Velvet Underground at Andy Warhol's club, New York, early 1966 - on stage, an AC50 Foundation Bass set and an AC100 SDL.

12th August (2)

The four main filter caps from a late AC100 - schematic OS/167 (original drawing dated July 1967). The serial number of the amp is in the high 1900s. The Radiospares date code "YF" = June 1967.

Around 100 chassis were evidently made in the second half of 1967 with cut-outs for the doubled up capacitors. Production of the old and new style chassis will have overlapped initially. Finished units were not slipped into boxes (ready and waiting with serial number plates) in any particular order.

12th August

A further "100W Amplifier" registered - (the plate is indistinct), currently in Japan. The amp has had a copper panel and link voltage selector added to give it an earlier look.

11th August

Freddie and the Dreamers, Longleat, August 1965. The band also had two AC50 Super Twins on the day (one with a basket top trolley). Picture from Lebrecht Images.

10th August

Serial number 498 currently on Reverb. A "100W Amplifier" - fixed bias, but no brimistor - produced summer 1965. For other "100W Amplifiers", .